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General Product Information: Item Number: BROINE01 Species Type: Naturalized βρομός and bromos mean oats, but βρομός seems to have referred specifically to Avena sativa (Hippocrates On Regimen in Acute Diseases 2.43, Dioscorides Medicus 2.94, Polemo Historicus 88) and Avena barbata (Theophrastus Historia Plantarum 8.9.2, Pseudo-Dioscorides 4.137). Introduced to the United States from Turkey in 1949. The inflorescence is a dense or open panicle, usually drooping or nodding, sometimes spreading (as in Japanese brome, B. japonicus). Meadow Brome (Meadow Bromegrass) is an introduced, long lived cool season perennial. Grazing/Hayland: The primary use of meadow brome is for forage production. "Smooth brome" redirects here. The generic name Bromus is derived from the Latin bromos, a borrowed word from the Ancient Greek βρομός (bromós). This rhizomatous grass is native to Europe. Sections Bromopsis, Neobromus, and Ceratochloa have several native species in North America. Smooth bromegrass is a long-lived perennial, sod-forming grass that grows best during months with cool weather, primarily March through June and September through November. It is widely used in mixtures with legumes for pasture, hay, or silage. Bromegrass in Nebraska . The plant is characterized by an erect, leafy, long-lived perennial, 46 to 91 cm (1 1⁄2 to 3 ft) tall, rhizomatous and commonly producing a dense sod. Meadow brome is one of the best forage grasses for use in the Northwestern states under intensive rotational grazing systems. Home / Grasses & Grass-like Species / Smooth Brome, Variety Not Stated. If smooth bromegrass pastures are grazed in the spring and fall, split applications of nitrogen fertilizer, putting down 80% in early May and 20% in early September, will produce more desirable results. Smooth brome is a grass that was introduced into the U.S. from Europe in the late 1800s and was widely established due to its resistance to depression-era droughts. Bromus inermis, Variety Not Stated Smooth Brome, Variety Not Stated. It starts growth in early spring; flowers May to July; reproduces from seeds, tillers, and rhizomes. Forms an extensive sod by rhizomes. [4] The Tarahumara Indians in northern Mexico use the grains of some native Bromus species to aid fermentation in making one of their cultural beverages. Introduced from Asia and Europe, smooth bromegrass is a cool-season perennial grass with a sod-forming growth habit. Rescue grass (B. catharticus), a winter annual introduced from South America into the United States as a forage and pasture grass, and smooth brome (B. inermis), a perennial native to Eurasia and introduced into the northern United States as a forage plant and soil binder, are … [2][3] They are commonly known as bromes, brome grasses, cheat grasses or chess grasses. Smooth brome also reproduces through rhizome development that begins between three weeks and six months after germination. Smooth brome is a cool season exotic that is especially troublesome in disturbed portions of old pastures in the tallgrass and mixed prairie regions. Smooth bromegrass is a cool-season introduced grass with an advanced root system that tolerates temperature extremes and drought exceptionally well. In areas with significant spring frost and little snow cover, meadow brome is a much better species selection than orchardgrass. In the extreme western counties bromegrass-alfalfa pastures are numerous on irrigated land. Smooth bromegrass is a cool-season introduced grass that spreads rapidly through seeds and rhizomes. The optimal timing for control of smooth brome by burning appears to be in boot stage, which may be as early as mid-April in the central Great Plains or in the northern plains. Forage quality of smooth bromegrass It is highly palatable to all classes of livestock and wildlife. Smooth brome, is a leafy, sod-forming, perennial, cool season grass that spreads by rhizomes. Estimates in the scientific literature of the number of species have ranged from 100 to 400, but plant taxonomists currently recognize around 160–170 species. Others, such as meadow brome (Bromus riparius), native to parts of Russia, are planted as forage in the Great Plains of North America. This species is both native and introduced. The stems vary in height from 2 to 4 feet. Smooth brome emerges early in the season and forms dense cover in grasslands, roadsides, ditches, and moist wooded areas. Growth Habitat: Smooth brome is a long-lived, cool season perennial. Bromus is part of the cool-season grass lineage (subfamily Pooideae), which includes about 3300 species. It is deep-rooted and spreads by underground rhizomes. It is 1-3 feet tall and produces large seeds, 1/4″ long. It prefers pH between 5.8 and 6.5. Very winter hardy. Broadcasting brome on the surface with shallow incorporation can result in good stands of brome. Erosion control: Since the plant has a … It will not tolerate frequent cutting. Farmers who follow rotation grazing, and those Smooth Brome is a perennial grass native to Europe that was introduced to the United States in the late 1800’s. It is highly palatable and widely used for hay, pasture and forage production. Drilling ensures uniform seed distribution, accurate seeding rates, and uniform depth of coverage. The generic name comes from avēna, a native Latin word for "oats" or "wild oats". Drilling smooth brome seed is the preferred method of seeding. Within Pooideae, Bromus is classified in tribe Bromeae (it is the only genus in the tribe). This grass-legume combination is highly productive on irrigated Smooth bromegrass is a common pasture and hay grass in the northern United States and Canada, but not in the southeastern United States, as it does … For best results, smooth brome should be seeded ¼ to ½ inch deep. It does well in deep, well drained, moist soils. Some are useful to prevent erosion but such use must be cautiously controlled as most Bromus have the ability to spread, becoming invasive weeds. Bromus is a large genus of grasses, classified in its own tribe Bromeae. Resists heat and drought. Brome is a cool-season grass, which means that it is actively growing at fairly cool temperatures in the spring. They are commonly known as bromes, brome grasses, cheat grasses or chess grasses. Most production occurs during the spring growth period, generally peaking in May through early June. Smooth brome was first introduced in the United Adaptation: Smooth brome was introduced from Europe and Asia. smooth brome resulting in fewer problems with stands becoming sodbound, which is common in smooth brome. This name is also applied to, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Bromus_inermis&oldid=923690131, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 30 October 2019, at 04:21. However, mixtures with legumes that will not be harvested before 1/10 bloom are excellent. The grass is highly palatable and is high in protein content and relatively low in crude-fiber content. Meadow Brome is highly palatable to all classes of livestock and wildlife. The plant produces numerous basal and stem leaves that vary in length from 4 to 10 inches. History of Introduction: Smooth brome is an introduced grass from Europe, China and Siberia that is now considered to be naturalized in the United States. When used in pasture mixtures, a faster recovering grass such as orchardgrass should be included to increase grass content. There are considerable morphological differences between some species, while the morphological differences between others (usually those species that are closely related) are subtle and difficult to distinguish. Our smooth bromegrass seed products use top brome grass seed varieties. It produces well in areas with spring frost such as high mountain valleys. In North America, five morphologically similar groups of species, called sections, are generally recognized: Bromus, Genea, Ceratochloa, Neobromus, and Bromopsis. Media in category "Bromus inermis"The following 77 files are in this category, out of 77 total. Meadow brome is very winter hardy. It becomes semidormant during the hot, dry summer months. This restriction on harvesting makes bromegrass unsuitable in mixture with alfalfa that will be harvested at the bud stage. Bromus species are generally considered to have little economic value to humans, at least in present times. It matures somewhat later in the spring than orchardgrass and makes less summer growth than orchardgrass. Smooth brome grass (Bromus inermis) Smooth brome is a grass that is commonly found in Minnesota in sunny areas. Taxonomists have generated various classification schemes to reflect the morphological variation that is seen in Bromus. It is high in protein content and relatively low in crude-fiber content. [1] Smooth bromegrass is a cool-season introduced grass with an advanced root system that tolerates temperature extremes and drought exceptionally well. It is widely used in mixtures with legumes for pasture, hay, or silage. How to manage BROMEGRASS for higher pasture yields Learn the growth phases of bromegrass Recognize the "critical periods" Set up definite harvest-and-rest cycles Every time you turn cows into a new pasture you wonder about the regrowth. Smooth bromegrass is one of the most productive and palatable forage grasses available. pumpellianus] Bromus is distinguished from other grass genera by a combination of several morphological characteristics, including leaf sheaths that are closed (connate) for most of their length, awns that are usually inserted subapically, and hairy appendages on the ovary. Smooth bromegrass Smooth bromegrass (Bromus inermis L.) is a leafy, sod-forming perennial grass that is best suited for hay or early spring pasture. It may regrow and re flower in the fall if moisture is sufficient. As such, the taxonomy of the genus is complicated. Smooth bromegrass (Bromus inermis) is a long-lived perennial, sod-forming grass introduced into the United States from Hungary in 1884. Bromus inermis, smooth brome, is a leafy, sod- forming, perennial, cool season grass that spreads by rhizomes. Learn how and when to remove this template message, World Checklist of Selected Plant Families, "The grass genera of the world: descriptions, illustrations, identification, and information retrieval; including synonyms, morphology, anatomy, physiology, phytochemistry, cytology, classification, pathogens, world and local distribution, and references", "A worldwide phylogenetic classification of the Poaceae (Gramineae) II: An update and a comparison of two 2015 classifications", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Bromus&oldid=963739114, Articles needing additional references from August 2018, All articles needing additional references, Articles containing Ancient Greek (to 1453)-language text, Taxonbars using multiple manual Wikidata items, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 21 June 2020, at 14:41. Sections Bromus and Genea are native to the Old World (Eurasia), but many species are introduced into North America. Although less invasive than Kentucky bluegrass, with which it often occurs and is managed, it is also less responsive to management. It was widely planted for forage and erosion control. It is used for pasture, hay and haylage. It is high in protein content and relatively low in crude-fiber content. Estimates in the scientific literature of the number of species have ranged from 100 to 400, but plant taxonomists currently recognize around 160–170 species. Spring harvest should be made before jointing or after the early-flower stage of development to ensure maximum smooth bromegrass persistence. Extension Agronomist E xcept in the range areas bromegrass has become Nebraska's leading pasture grass, especially in the eastern half of the state. Smooth Bromegrass - Bromus inermis - A cool-season forage grass that is used extensively in nothern areas for early season pasture. Smooth brome looks very similar to a native brome. However, the native brome grows in small bunches, whereas smooth brome grows in large homogenous monocultures. The leaves are glabrous or occasionally pubescent, particularly on the sheaths; blades 20 to 38 cm (8 to 15 in) long, 0.6 to 1.3 cm (1⁄4 to 1⁄2 in) wide, flat, with a raised and keeled midrib below; sheaths closed, except near collar, and papery when dry; leaves rolled in the bud; ligates up to 0.3 cm (1⁄8 in) long, rounded, and membranous; auricles absent. Bromus species occur in many habitats in temperate regions of the world, including Africa, America, Australia and Eurasia. … It establishes easily and rapidly, which has Smooth bromegrass (Bromus inermis) is a cool-season grass introduced into the United States from Hungary in 1884.Smooth bromegrass was widely used in the upper half of North America during the late 19th and early 20th centuries, with distinguishable northern and southern varieties. 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